By His Majefty’s Royal Letters Patent.

DRAWS Plans in the moft accurate Manner; alfo executes the Workmanfhip of various and moft ufeful Machines for manufacturing Grain, Iron, Woollens, Linens, and Cottons; Saw, Paper, Oil and Snuff Mills, with improved Machines for thrafhing Corn; Breweries; Diftilleries; Hydraulical Engines, wrought by living, natural, or artificial Powers; Cranes; Pile Engines; Bridges; Piers; Quays; Dam-heads; Cafcades; and Fifhing Locks. - Alfo Steam Engines on a new Construction; with many others too tedious to mention.
J. R. having conftructed the feveral Machines above-mentioned in South and North Britain, begs Leave to return Thanks for all paft Favors, and folicits a Continuation of the fame.


Amongft the Variety of ufeful Machines, there is none of more general Utility than the Churn; and every Attempt to facilitate the Labour, and render fhorter the Time of operation, muft therefore be highly deferving of public Encouragement. The Imperial Churn poffeffes thofe Properties in an eminent Degree, by not only reducing the Labour to an eafy Employment for one Perfon, which the other Churns, of equal Size, make hard Work for two, but alfo fhortens the Time of its Operation with equal Succefs; but what more effentially recommends it in Preference to all other Churns, is, that inftead of heating the Cream, by increafing the Velocity, it has the contrary Effect, that of cooling in in Proportion to the Increafe of Motion, and confequenty prevents that difagreeable Bitter always obferved in Butter that is overheated in the Time of churning. This Bitternefs being much owing to the Action of the Acids in the Cream during the Time of its forming into Particles of Butter, the longer Time it takes in churning, gives the Acids more Time to act: and therefore, the fooner it is churned, muft render the Butter fweeter and finer flavoured. Every Year the Complaint of Hot-churning, &c. becomes more general, which is the Occafion of fo much bad Butter: It is greatly owing to fo much new Land, whofe Herbage is of fo tender a Quality, that it foon receives Damage, by not difcharging the fixed Air and Acids, which the Imperial Churn does. The Butter that is affected in this Manner will have white Scairs, or be of different Colours.


To feafon it, mix two or three Quarts of quick Lime amongft fome Water, and let the Mixture remain in it for three Days; turn the Works about frequently each Day, and when taken out cleanfe the Churn well with hot Water. - Repeated Scaldings will then fit the Churn for Ufe.
The Churn is to be hung upon a Frame with the Mouth up, a Pin to be put through the Frame into one of the Crofs-Bars, on the contrary End to the Handle, to prevent the Churn from turning round during the Time of churning. The Ventilator and Churn have correfponding Mark, in order to fit the former exactly into the Mouth of the latter. The Ventilator is a great Prefervative againft hot churning, by receiving the fweet Air in the one Side, and difcharging the four or bitter Acids on the other. In cold Weather it is very neceffary to fcald the Churn with boiling Water before ufing it, and to throw a Cloth over the Mouth of the Ventilator to prevent too much cold Air from entering.
After the Particles of Butter begin to unite, the Hand muft be kept turning backwards and forwards, for a half Round, to gather the Butter; when done, the Mouth of the Churn is turned to one Side. By turning the Hand round, the Breakers will bring the Butter to the Mouth of the Churn. There is one more of the fmall Breakers left out for the Convenience of putting the Hand into any part of the Churn, if required.
The firft churns from one-half to five Pounds of Butter at a Time: Second from ditto to ten Pounds: Third from ditto to twenty Pounds: Fourth from ditto to forty Pounds: And the fifth from ditto to fifty two pounds.