Royal Letters Patent.
ENGINEER, MILL WRIGHT, PUMP AND PATENT CHURN MAKER,
DRAWS Plans in the moft accurate Manner; alfo executes
the Workmanfhip of various and moft ufeful Machines for manufacturing
Grain, Iron, Woollens, Linens, and Cottons; Saw, Paper, Oil and Snuff
Mills, with improved Machines for thrafhing Corn; Breweries; Diftilleries;
Hydraulical Engines, wrought by living, natural, or artificial Powers;
Cranes; Pile Engines; Bridges; Piers; Quays; Dam-heads; Cafcades; and
Fifhing Locks. - Alfo Steam Engines on a new Construction; with many others
too tedious to mention.
J. R. having conftructed the feveral Machines above-mentioned in South
and North Britain, begs Leave to return Thanks for all paft Favors, and
folicits a Continuation of the fame.
PROPERTIES OF THE IMPERIAL CHURN.
Amongft the Variety of ufeful Machines, there is none of more general
Utility than the Churn; and every Attempt to facilitate the Labour, and
render fhorter the Time of operation, muft therefore be highly deferving
of public Encouragement. The Imperial Churn poffeffes thofe Properties
in an eminent Degree, by not only reducing the Labour to an eafy Employment
for one Perfon, which the other Churns, of equal Size, make hard Work
for two, but alfo fhortens the Time of its Operation with equal Succefs;
but what more effentially recommends it in Preference to all other Churns,
is, that inftead of heating the Cream, by increafing the Velocity, it
has the contrary Effect, that of cooling in in Proportion to the Increafe
of Motion, and confequenty prevents that difagreeable Bitter always obferved
in Butter that is overheated in the Time of churning. This Bitternefs
being much owing to the Action of the Acids in the Cream during the Time
of its forming into Particles of Butter, the longer Time it takes in churning,
gives the Acids more Time to act: and therefore, the fooner it is churned,
muft render the Butter fweeter and finer flavoured. Every Year the Complaint
of Hot-churning, &c. becomes more general, which is the Occafion of
fo much bad Butter: It is greatly owing to fo much new Land, whofe Herbage
is of fo tender a Quality, that it foon receives Damage, by not difcharging
the fixed Air and Acids, which the Imperial Churn does. The Butter that
is affected in this Manner will have white Scairs, or be of different
DIRECTIONS FOR MANAGING THE IMPERIAL CHURN.
To feafon it, mix two or three Quarts of quick Lime amongft fome Water,
and let the Mixture remain in it for three Days; turn the Works about
frequently each Day, and when taken out cleanfe the Churn well with hot
Water. - Repeated Scaldings will then fit the Churn for Ufe.
The Churn is to be hung upon a Frame with the Mouth up, a Pin to be put
through the Frame into one of the Crofs-Bars, on the contrary End to the
Handle, to prevent the Churn from turning round during the Time of churning.
The Ventilator and Churn have correfponding Mark, in order to fit the
former exactly into the Mouth of the latter. The Ventilator is a great
Prefervative againft hot churning, by receiving the fweet Air in the one
Side, and difcharging the four or bitter Acids on the other. In cold Weather
it is very neceffary to fcald the Churn with boiling Water before ufing
it, and to throw a Cloth over the Mouth of the Ventilator to prevent too
much cold Air from entering.
After the Particles of Butter begin to unite, the Hand muft be kept turning
backwards and forwards, for a half Round, to gather the Butter; when done,
the Mouth of the Churn is turned to one Side. By turning the Hand round,
the Breakers will bring the Butter to the Mouth of the Churn. There is
one more of the fmall Breakers left out for the Convenience of putting
the Hand into any part of the Churn, if required.
The firft churns from one-half to five Pounds of Butter at a Time: Second
from ditto to ten Pounds: Third from ditto to twenty Pounds: Fourth from
ditto to forty Pounds: And the fifth from ditto to fifty two pounds.